How to pronounce Ukrainian terms

As Russian troops continue to attack Ukrainian cities, forcing more than a million people to flee the country so far, people around the world may notice different spellings and pronunciations of the country's city names. This article lists the pronunciation and basic information of some cities that are still at war.

Kyiv (Russian name: Kiev |BrE /ˈkiːɛv/,/ˈkiːɛf/, AmE /ˌkiˈɛv/, /ˈkiɛv/|)

BrE /ˈkɪjɪf/, AmE /ˈkijɪf/

the capital of Ukraine, an industrial city and port on the River Dnieper. Founded in the 8th century, it became capital of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1934. In 1991 it became capital of independent Ukraine.

Donetsk

BrE /dɒˈnjɛtsk/, AmE /dəˈn(j)ɛtsk/

a city in the Donets Basin in Ukraine. The city was called Yuzovka 1872–1924, and Stalin or Stalino 1924–61.

Kharkiv

BrE /ˈhɑːkɪv/, AmE /ˈxɑrkɪf/

an industrial city in northeastern Ukraine, in the Donets basin. Russian name Kharkov.

Kherson

BrE /kɪəˈsɒn/, AmE /xɛrˈsɔn/

a port on the coast of Ukraine, on the Dnieper estuary

Mariupol

BrE /ˌmarɪˈuːpɒl/, AmE /ˌmɑriˈupəl/

an industrial port on the southern coast of Ukraine, on the Sea of Azov. Former name (1948–89) Zhdanov.

Mykolaiv

BrE /ˌmɪkəˈlʌɪɪf/, AmE /ˌmikəˈlaɪəf/

an industrial city in southern Ukraine, on the Southern Bug River near the northern tip of the Black Sea. Russian name Nikolaev.